Oct 17, 2009

How To Create Linux LVM in linux

What’s LVM? Why using Linux Logical Volume Manager or LVM?

These questions are not the scope here. But in brief, the most attractive feature of Logical Volume Manager is to make disk management easier in Linux! Basically, LVM allows users to dynamically extend or shrink Linux “partition” or file system in online mode! The LVM can resize volume groups (VG) online by adding new physical volumes (PV) or rejecting those existing PVs attached to VG.

let’s assume that
  • The LVM is not currently configured or in used. Having say that, this is the LVM tutorial if you’re going to setup LVM from the ground up on a production Linux server with a new SATA / SCSI hard disk.
  • Without a luxury server hardware, I tested this LVM tutorial on PC with the secondary hard disk dedicated for LVM setup. So, the Linux dev file of secondary IDE hard disk will be /dev/hdb (or /dev/sdb for SCSI hard disk).
  • This guide is fully tested in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4 with Logical Volume Manager 2 (LVM2) run-time environment (LVM version 2.00.31 2004-12-12, Library version 1.00.19-ioctl 2004-07-03, Driver version 4.1.0)!

How to setup Linux LVM in 3 minutes at command line?
  1. Login with root user ID and try to avoid using sudo command for simplicity reason.
  2. Using the whole secondary hard disk for LVM partition:
    fdisk /dev/hdb

    At the Linux fdisk command prompt,
    1. press n to create a new disk partition,
    2. press p to create a primary disk partition,
    3. press 1 to denote it as 1st disk partition,
    4. press ENTER twice to accept the default of 1st and last cylinder – to convert the whole secondary hard disk to a single disk partition,
    5. press t (will automatically select the only partition – partition 1) to change the default Linux partition type (0×83) to LVM partition type (0×8e),
    6. press L to list all the currently supported partition type,
    7. press 8e (as per the L listing) to change partition 1 to 8e, i.e. Linux LVM partition type,
    8. press p to display the secondary hard disk partition setup. Please take note that the first partition is denoted as /dev/hdb1 in Linux,
    9. press w to write the partition table and exit fdisk upon completion.

  3. Next, this LVM command will create a LVM physical volume (PV) on a regular hard disk or partition:
    pvcreate /dev/hdb1
  4. Now, another LVM command to create a LVM volume group (VG) called vg0 with a physical extent size (PE size) of 16MB:
    vgcreate -s 16M vg0 /dev/hdb1

    Be properly planning ahead of PE size before creating a volume group with vgcreate -s option!
  5. Create a 400MB logical volume (LV) called lvol0 on volume group vg0:
    lvcreate -L 400M -n lvol0 vg0

    This lvcreate command will create a softlink /dev/vg0/lvol0 point to a correspondence block device file called /dev/mapper/vg0-lvol0.
  6. The Linux LVM setup is almost done. Now is the time to format logical volume lvol0 to create a Red Hat Linux supported file system, i.e. EXT3 file system, with 1% reserved block count:
    mkfs -t ext3 -m 1 -v /dev/vg0/lvol0
  7. Create a mount point before mounting the new EXT3 file system:
    mkdir /mnt/vfs
  8. The last step of this LVM tutorial – mount the new EXT3 file system created on logical volume lvol0 of LVM to /mnt/vfs mount point:
    mount -t ext3 /dev/vg0/lvol0 /mnt/vfs

To confirm the LVM setup has been completed successfully, the df -h command should display these similar message:

/dev/mapper/vg0-lvol0 388M 11M 374M 3% /mnt/vfs

Some of the useful LVM commands reference:
vgdisplay vg0
To check or display volume group setting, such as physical size (PE Size), volume group name (VG name), maximum logical volumes (Max LV), maximum physical volume (Max PV), etc.
To check or list all physical volumes (PV) created for volume group (VG) in the current system.
To dynamically adding more physical volume (PV), i.e. through new hard disk or disk partition, to an existing volume group (VG) in online mode. You’ll have to manually execute vgextend after pvcreate command that create LVM physical volume (PV).

Sep 19, 2009

How to add route in Linux

To view the current routing table run “route -n

[root@klmppswdr01p ~]# route -n
Kernel IP routing table
Destination Gateway Genmask Flags Metric Ref Use Iface U 0 0 0 eth0 UG 0 0 0 eth0 U 0 0 0 eth0 UG 0 0 0 eth0

To add a route refer to the command below.

"route add -net netmask gw"

To delete a route refer to the command below.

"route del -net netmask gw"

The routing information above is not persistent across reboots. After a reboot, the routing information will be lost and you need to add them in again.

The routing information above is not persistent across reboots. After a reboot, the routing information will be lost and you need to add them in again.

To make the routing information persistent, add the “route add” line as seen above into the /etc/rc.local file.

Sample /etc/rc.local file.

# This script will be executed *after* all the other init scripts.
# You can put your own initialization stuff in here if you don't
# want to do the full Sys V style init stuff.
touch /var/lock/subsys/local
route add -net netmask gw

Sep 11, 2009

Linux File Structure

For those of you coming from windows backgrounds, the way the linux filesystem is laid out may seem confusing at first glance…. but that is where this article comes in !

The first thing you should know when working with linux, is that everything is treated as either a file or directory. Yeap thats right, even hardware is considered a file by linux, and, speaking of hardware… all your hardware devices are located in the /dev directory, but more on that later.

Another thing that confuses windows users, is the fact that linux dosen’t use drive letters to distinguish between different partitions and devices. that is to say in linux, the “root” of your filesystem is / whereas in windows it would most probably be C:\ . Drives in linux are “mounted” to directories where their data can then be accessed, so for instance, if you needed to use your thumbdrive, you would plug it into your computer, and then mount it using the “mount” command, which specifies the path to the device ( something like /dev/sdb or /dev/sdc ) and the directory to mount it to (usually /mnt or /media), then you can happily access your drive from the /mnt or /media folder.

Sounds strange right? well yes it does if you come from a windows environment, where the entire operating system is consolidated onto a single drive. However, with linux and the ability to mount devices as directories, it gives the end user much greater flexibility in splitting up their operating system over several drives or partitions.

to understand what I mean when I say that this approach in mounting drives grants flexibility, I must first explain the different folders in linux and what they store

The graphic above shows the linux filesystem hierarchy, now will explain in a bit more detail what each folder contains.

/ this is the root folder, all other folders come under root.. think of it as C:\ in a Windows context.

/bin this folder contains all the user-essential binaries (programs) that are needed to administer and run your linux system… delete this folder and your system is broken.

/boot as the name suggests, this folder contains configuration files and other necessary files that are needed by the bootloader

/dev this folder contains device files (remember, these files represent physical devices, so be careful when working with them)

/etc this folder contains all the configuration files used by the system, you can also start and stop services (daemons ) from here

/home this folder contains the home folders of all the normal (non – root ) users on the system .. think of it as my documents in windows

/lib this folder contains software libraries

/media this is a mount point for removable devices… this is where you would usually mount your thumbdrives … etc

/mnt this is a temporary mount point

/opt this folder contains add on software (extra software)

/sbin this folder contains binaries that can only be run as the root user (”superuser”)

/tmp this folder contains temporary files that are erased upon reboot

/usr this folder and its subfolders contains user installed programs and utilities and libraries

/var this folder contains files that change alot (”Variable files”)

/root this folder contians the root user’s files

/proc this is a psuedo folder, that contains information about the linux kernel and hardware that is updated in realtime.

Now back to how mounting grants flexibility…

you see how the different folders all contain parts of the operating system? well we can actually mount a seperate hard drive for each of this folders. for example, your /home folder can be put on another harddrive than your / which means that you can easily recover your personal files if the harddrive on / fails because the harddrive mounted to your /home folder is seperate from the one that is mounted to your /

So there you have it, you now know a little bit more about the nuts and bolts of linux based operating systems.

Jul 27, 2009

Linux Keybroad Shortcut


CTRL + B Moves the cursor backward one character.
CTRL + C Cancels the currently running command.
CTRL + D Logs out of the current session.
CTRL + F Moves the cursor forward one character.
CTRL + H Erase one character. Similar to pressing backspace.
CTRL + P Paste previous line and/or lines.
CTRL + S Stops all output on screen
CTRL + Q Turns all output stopped on screen back on
CTRL + U Erases the complete line.
CTRL + W Deletes the last word typed in. For example, if you typed 'mv file1 file2' this shortcut would delete file2.
CTRL + Z Cancels current operation, moves back a directory and/or takes the current operation and moves it to the background. See bg command for additional information about background.

More Helpful Shortcut

~ Moves to the user's home directory.
!! Repeats the line last entered at the shell.
!$ Repeats the last argument for the command last used.
reset Resets the terminal if terminal screen is not displaying correctly.
shutdown -h now Remotely or locally shuts the system down.

Jul 2, 2009

SquirrelMail replaces Microsoft Outlook in the office of the Indian Prime Minister

I have found the following interesting news from’s website

is enough to open eyes and minds of the government of under-developed countries (as ours), and a signal to act accordingly.

Here is the text directly from that site, from their News section.
NEWS: SquirrelMail replaces Microsoft Outlook in the office of the Indian Prime Minister

Mar 25, 2009 by Paul Lesniewski

Several news outlets (Techgoss, infopackets, The Register, The Times of India, etc.) are reporting that after a virus prevented email retrieval for three months in the office of the Prime Minister of India, SquirrelMail was chosen as part of a replacement system that had previously been based on Microsoft products. This surely means that several other Open Source products were included in the switch, and we applaud both the Office Of the Prime Minister and its technology consultants who made the switch to Open Source Software

Uninstalling Linux


In this HOW-TO i'm going to try to explain how to uninstall linux without messing up your windows partition. I feel this is a area that isn't really touched upon that much and most newbies need help with it. I know when I was a noob I didn't like linux because I hadn't knew how to uninstall it. But now I feel I know enough to write a tutorial on how to do it and explain the steps.

1. Removing Your Disto

The easiest way uninstall linux is probably from a Windows XP CD. Once you boot from the CD follow the instructions until you get to the part where you see all the partitions on your hard drive. You must delete all your linux partitions. The primary partitions you'll probably see are

linux ext3, linux ext2, linux swap.

You should delete all these partitions to remove your distro.

2. Fixing your Master Boot Record

Most people know how to uninstall their distro. But afterwards their presented with a black screen and grub asking for input


or something similar to that. This is were I got totally confused when I was first starting linux. I had no idea what to do so I just re-installed my distro, which actually fixed the problem but I wanted linux totally gone. Enough about me let's get back uninstalling linux. Boot off the Windows XP CD and after windows loads type r to get to the Recovery Console. Once you in the the Recovery Console you'll probably be prompted to type the administrator user name and password. I ususally just put admin as the user name and nothing as the password and it usually works. But that is just my settings your might be different, but usually admin and no password works fine . Now were in recovery console all we have to do is type:


this command will re-write the Master Boot Record, therefore removing Grub.

3. Finished

Now just type shutdown -r this will restart the computer. Remove the Windows XP CD. Now when the computer starts you should be greeted with the all familiar Windows Startup Screen.

Mar 20, 2009

Red Hat Configure an NTP Client And Server

how do I configure an NTP (Network Time Protocol) client or server under CentOS / RHEL / Fedora Linux to manage the system clock over a network?

The Network Time Protocol (NTP) is used to synchronize a computer's time with another reference time source. Under CentOS / RHEL you can use NTP or OpenNTPD server software. Both package provides client and server software programs for time synchronization.

Install ntp

The ntp package contains utilities and daemons that will synchronize your computer's time to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) via the NTP protocol and NTP servers. The ntp packageincludes ntpdate (a program for retrieving the date and time from remote machines via a network) and ntpd (a daemon which continuously adjusts system time). Install the ntp package:

# yum install ntp

How do I configure an NTP Client?

Simply open /etc/ntp.conf file, enter:

# vi /etc/ntp.conf

Make sure the following line exists:


* : the hostname or IP address of the site NTP server. If your ntp server located at, enter server You can also use public ntp server located at

You can also run ntpd using cron:

# echo '30 * * * * root /usr/sbin/ntpd -q -u ntp:ntp' > /etc/cron.d/ntpd

he above instructs crond to run ntpd and after setting the clock just exit, and the -u option instructs it to run as the ntp user.


Configure an NTP Server

Our sample setup: ==> CentOS / Fedora / RHEL NTPD Server.

First, install and enable ntpd on

# yum install ntp
# chkconfig ntpd on

Now open /etc/ntp.conf:

# vi /etc/ntp.conf

Make sure the following line exits:
restrict default ignore

Above will deny all access to any machine, server or client. However, you need to specifically authorized policy settings. Set it as follows:

Feb 14, 2009

Hiren's Boot CD v9.7

All in one Dos Bootable CD which has all these utilities

Changes from v9.6 -> v9.7
+Mini Windows Xp
+Password Renew 1.1
+WindowsGate 1.1
+Registry Editor PE 0.9c
+Smart Driver Backup 2.12
+Ultimate Windows Tweaker 1.0
+Off By One Browser 3.5
Ghost Walker
Ghost Image Explorer
IBM/Hitachi Drive Fitness Test 4.11
Memtest86+ 2.11
ExcelStor's ESTest 4.50
Astra 5.41
HWiNFO 5.2.5
CPU Identification utility 1.15
7-Zip 4.62
Recuva 1.22.384
Partition Find and Mount 2.31
Express Burn 4.16
Process Explorer 11.31
RootkitRevealer 1.71
Silent Runners Revision 59
Autoruns 9.37
CurrPorts 1.55
CPU-Z 1.49
SmitFraudFix 2.387
CCleaner 2.15.815
ProduKey 1.35
Wireless Key View 1.20
ShellExView 1.35
Xp-AntiSpy 3.97
PC Wizard 2008.1.871
SIW 2008-12-16
Spybot - Search & Destroy 1.6 (3012)
SpywareBlaster 4.1(3012)
PCI 32 Sniffer 1.4 (3012)
McAfee Antivirus 4.4.50 (3012)
Ad-Aware SE Personal 1.06 (3012)
PCI and AGP info Tool (3012)
Unknown Devices 1.2 (3012)

All softwares:
Partition Tools
Partition Magic Pro 8.05
Best software to partition hard drive

Acronis Disk Director Suite 9.0.554
Popular disk management functions in a single suite

Paragon Partition Manager 7.0.1274
Universal tool for partitions

Partition Commander 9.01
The safe way to partition your hard drive,with undo feature

Ranish Partition Manager 2.44
a boot manager and hard disk partitioner.

The Partition Resizer 1.3.4
move and resize your partitions in one step and more.

Smart Fdisk 2.05
a simple harddisk partition manager

SPecial Fdisk 2000.03t
SPFDISK a partition tool.

eXtended Fdisk 0.9.3
XFDISK allows easy partition creation and edition

GDisk 1.1.1
Complete replacement for the DOS FDISK utility and more.

Super Fdisk 1.0
Create, delete, format partitions drives without destroying data

Partition Table Editor 8.0
Partition Table and Boot Record Editor
Disk Clone Tools
ImageCenter 5.6 (Drive Image 2002)
Best software to clone hard drive

Norton Ghost 11.5
Similar to Drive Image (with usb/scsi support)

Acronis True Image 8.1.945
Create an exact disk image for complete system backup and disk cloning.

Partition Saving 3.60
A tool to backup/restore partitions. (SavePart.exe)

COPYR.DMA Build013
A Tool for making copies of hard disks with bad sectors
Antivirus Tools
McAfee Antivirus 4.4.50 (3012)
a virus scanner (with ntfs support and easy to use menu)
Recovery Tools
Active Partition Recovery 3.0
To Recover a Deleted partition.

Active Uneraser 3.0
To recover deleted files and folders on FAT and NTFS systems.

Ontrack Easy Recovery Pro 6.10
To Recover data that has been deleted/virus attack

Winternals Disk Commander 1.1
more than just a standard deleted-file recovery utility

TestDisk 6.10
Tool to check and undelete partition.

Lost & Found 1.06
a good old data recovery software.

DiyDataRecovery Diskpatch 2.1.100
An excellent data recovery software.

Prosoft Media Tools 5.0
Another excellent data recovery software with many other options.

PhotoRec 6.10
File and pictures recovery Tool.
Testing Tools
System Speed Test 4.78
it tests CPU, harddrive, ect.

PC-Check 6.5
Easy to use hardware tests

Ontrack Data Advisor 5.0
Powerful diagnostic tool for assessing the condition of your computer

The Troubleshooter 7.02
all kind of hardware testing tool

PC Doctor 2004
a benchmarking and information tool

CPU/Video/Disk Performance Test 5.7
a tool to test cpu, video, and disk

Test Hard Disk Drive 1.0
a tool to test Hard Disk Drive
RAM (Memory) Testing Tools
GoldMemory 5.07
RAM Test utility

Memtest86+ 2.11
PC Memory Test
Hard Disk Tools
Hard Disk Diagnostic Utilities
Seagate Seatools Desktop Edition 3.02
Western Digital Data Lifeguard Tools
Western Digital Diagnostics (DLGDIAG) 5.04f
Maxtor PowerMax 4.23
Maxtor amset utility 4.0
Maxtor(or any Hdd) Low Level Formatter 1.1
Fujitsu HDD Diagnostic Tool 7.00
Fujitsu IDE Low Level Format 1.0
Samsung HDD Utility(HUTIL) 2.10
Samsung Disk Diagnose (SHDIAG) 1.28
IBM/Hitachi Drive Fitness Test 4.11
IBM/Hitachi Feature Tool 2.11
Gateway GwScan 5.12
ExcelStor's ESTest 4.50
MHDD 4.6
WDClear 1.30
Toshiba Hard Disk Diagnostic 2.00b
SeaTools for Dos 1.10

HDD Regenerator 1.51
to recover a bad hard drive

Ontrack Disk Manager 9.57
Disk Test/Format/Maintenance tool.

Norton Disk Doctor 2002
a tool to repair a damaged disk, or to diagnose your hard drive.

Norton Disk Editor 2002
a powerful disk editing, manual data recovery tool.

Hard Disk Sentinel 0.02
Hard Disk health, performance and temperature monitoring tool.

Active Kill Disk 4.1
Securely overwrites and destroys all data on physical drive.

HDAT2 4.53
main function is testing and repair (regenerates) bad sectors for detected devices

SmartUDM 2.00
Hard Disk Drive S.M.A.R.T. Viewer.

Victoria 3.33e and 3.52rus
a freeware program for low-level HDD diagnostics

HDD Erase 4.0
Secure erase using a special feature built into most newer hard drives
System Information Tools
Aida16 2.14
a system information tool, extracts details of all components of the PC

PCI and AGP info Tool (3012)
The PCI System information & Exploration tool.

System Analyser 5.3u
View extensive information about your hardware

Navratil Software System Information 0.60.32
High-end professional system information tool

Astra 5.41
Advanced System info Tool and Reporting Assistant

HWiNFO 5.2.5
a powerful system information utility

PC-Config 9.33
Complete hardware detection of your computer

SysChk 2.46
Find out exactly what is under the hood of your PC

CPU Identification utility 1.15
Detailed information on CPU (CHKCPU.EXE)

CTIA CPU Information 2.7
another CPU information tool
MBR (Master Boot Record) Tools
MBRWork 1.07b
a utility to perform some common and uncommon MBR functions

MBR Tool 2.2.100
backup, verify, restore, edit, refresh, remove, display, re-write...

all in one tool for cmos, bios, bootrecord and more

BootFix Utility
Run this utility if you get 'Invalid system disk'

BootSave and BootRest tools to save / restore MBR

Boot Partition 2.60
add Partition in the Windows NT/2000/XP Multi-boot loader

Partition Table Doctor 3.5
a tool to repair/modify mbr, bootsector, partition table

Smart Boot Manager 3.7.1
a multi boot manager

Bootmagic 8.0
This tool is for multi boot operating systems

MBRWizard 2.0b
Directly update and modify the MBR (Master Boot Record)
CMOS 0.93
CMOS Save / Restore Tool

BIOS Cracker 4.8
BIOS password remover (cmospwd)

BIOS Cracker 1.4
BIOS password remover (cmospwc)

BIOS Utility 1.35.0
BIOS Informations, password, beep codes and more.

!BIOS 3.20
a powerfull utility for bios and cmos

a powerful all in one utility

UniFlash 1.40
bios flash utility

a tiny utility to wipe cmos

Award DMI Configuration Utility 2.43
DMI Configuration utility for modifying/viewing the MIDF contents.
MultiMedia Tools
Picture Viewer 1.94
Picture viewer for dos, supports more then 40 filetypes.

QuickView Pro 2.58
movie viewer for dos, supports many format including divx.

MpxPlay 1.56
a small Music Player for dos
Password Tools
Active Password Changer 3.0.420
To Reset User Password on windows NT/2000/XP/2003/Vista (FAT/NTFS)

Offline NT/2K/XP Password Changer
utility to reset windows nt/2000/xp administrator/user password.

Registry Viewer 4.2
Registry Viewer/Editor for Win9x/Me/NT/2K/XP

Registry Reanimator 1.02
check and restore structure of the damaged registry files of NT/2K/XP

utility to reset windows nt/2000/xp administrator/user password.

Hard Disk Password Utility
NTFS Ext2FS, Ext3FS (FileSystems) Tools
NTFS Dos Pro 5.0
To access ntfs partitions from Dos

NTFS 4 Dos 1.9
To access ntfs partitions from Dos

Paragon Mount Everything 3.0
To access NTFS, Ext2FS, Ext3FS partitions from dos

NTFS Dos 3.02
To access ntfs partitions from Dos

EditBINI 1.01
to Edit boot.ini on NTFS Partition
Dos File Managers
Volkov Commander 4.99
Dos File Manager with LongFileName/ntfs support
(Similar to Norton Commander)

Dos Command Center 5.1
Classic dos-based file manager.

File Wizard 1.35
a file manager - colored files, drag and drop copy, move, delete etc.

File Maven 3.5
an advanced Dos file manager with high speed PC-to-PC file
transfers via serial or parallel cable

FastLynx 2.0
Dos file manager with Pc to Pc file transfer capability

LapLink 5.0
the smart way to transfer files and directories between PCs.

Dos Navigator 6.4.0
Dos File Manager, Norton Commander clone but has much more features

Mini Windows 98
Can run from Ram Drive, with ntfs support,
Added 7-Zip which supports .7z .zip .cab .rar .arj .gzip,
.bzip2 .z .tar .cpio .rpm and .deb
Disk Defragmenter, Notepad / RichText Editor,
Image Viewer, .avi .mpg .divx .xvid Movie Player, etc...
Other Tools
Ghost Walker 11.5
utility that changes the security ID (SID) for Windows NT, 2000 and XP

DosCDroast beta 2
Dos CD Burning Tools

Universal TCP/IP Network 6.2
MSDOS Network Client to connect via TCP/IP to a Microsoft based
network. The network can either be a peer-to-peer or a server based
network, it contains 91 different network card drivers
Dos Tools
USB CD-Rom Driver 1
Standard usb_cd.sys driver for cd drive

Universal USB Driver 2
Panasonic v2.20 ASPI Manager for USB mass storage

SCSI Support
SCSI Drivers for Dos

SATA Support
SATA Driver (gcdrom.sys) and JMicron JMB361 (xcdrom.sys) for Dos

1394 Firewire Support
1394 Firewire Drivers for Dos

Interlnk support at COM1
To access another computer from COM port

Interlnk support at LPT1
To access another computer from LPT port
and too many great dos tools
very good collection of dos utilities
extract.exe pkzip.exe pkunzip.exe unrar.exe rar.exe
ace.exe lha.exe gzip.exe uharcd.exe deltree.exe xcopy.exe imgExtrc.exe fdisk.exe fdisk2.exe fdisk3.exe
lf.exe delpart.exe
move.exe find.exe hex.exe debug.exe
split.exe mem.exe smartdrv.exe
xmsdsk.exe killer.exe share.exe scandisk.exe scanreg.exe
guest.exe doskey.exe duse.exe biosdtct.exe setver.exe
intersvr.exe interlnk.exe loadlin.exe lfndos.exe
Windows Tools
SpaceMonger 1.4
keeping track of the free space on your computer

a disk usage statistics viewer and cleanup tool for Windows.

Drive Temperature 1.0
Hard Disk Drive temperature meter

Disk Speed 1.0
Hard Disk Drive Speed Testing Tool

MemTest 1.0
a Memory Testing Tool

S&M Stress Test 1.9.1
cpu/hdd/memory benchmarking and information tool, including temperatures/fan speeds/voltages

PageDfrg 2.32
System file Defragmenter For NT/2k/XP

WhitSoft File Splitter 4.5a
a Small File Split-Join Tool

7-Zip 4.62
File Manager/Archiver Supports 7z, ZIP, GZIP, BZIP2, TAR, RAR, CAB, ISO, ARJ, LZH, CHM, MSI, WIM, Z, CPIO, RPM, DEB and NSIS formats<

Off By One Browser 3.5d
an independent web browser that runs completely self- contained

Ghost Image Explorer 11.5
to add/remove/extract files from Ghost image file

DriveImage Explorer 5.0
to add/remove/extract files from Drive image file

Drive SnapShot 1.39
creates an exact Disk Image of your system into a file while windows is running.

Active Undelete 5.5
a tool to recover deleted files

Restoration 3.2.13
a tool to recover deleted files

GetDataBack for FAT 2.31
Data recovery software for FAT file systems

GetDataBack for NTFS 2.31
Data recovery software for NTFS file systems

Recuva 1.22.384
Restore deleted files from Hard Drive, Digital Camera Memory Card, usb mp3 player...

Partition Find and Mount 2.3.1
Partition Find and Mount software is designed to find lost or deleted partitions

Unstoppable Copier 3.56
Allows you to copy files from disks with problems such as bad sectors,
scratches or that just give errors when reading data.

HDD Scan 3.1
This is a Low-level HDD diagnostic tool, it scans surface find bad sectors etc.

HDTune 2.55
Hard disk benchmarking and information tool.

Express Burn 4.16
CD/DVD Burner Program to create and record CDs/DVDs, also create/burn .iso and .nrg images

Data Shredder 1.0
A tool to Erase disk and files (also wipe free space) securely

Startup Control Panel 2.8
a tool to edit startup programs

NT Registry Optimizer 1.1j
Registry Optimization for Windows NT/2000/2003/XP/Vista

Registry Editor PE 0.9c
Easy editing of remote registry hives and user profiles

DefragNT 1.9
This tool presents the user with many options for disk defragmenting

JkDefrag 3.36
Free disk defragment and optimize utility for Windows 2000/2003/XP/Vista

Startup Monitor 1.02
it notifies you when any program registers itself to run at system startup

IB Process Manager 1.04
a little process manager for 9x/2k, shows dll info etc.

Process Explorer 11.31
shows you information about which handles and DLLs processes have opened or loaded

Pocket KillBox
can be used to get rid of files that stubbornly refuse to allow you to delete them

Unlocker 1.8.7
This tool can delete file/folder when you get this message - Cannot delete file:
Access is denied, The file is in use by another program etc.

HijackThis 2.0.2
a general homepage hijackers detector and remover and more

RootkitRevealer 1.7.1
Rootkit Revealer is an advanced patent-pending root kit detection utility.

Silent Runners Revision 59
A free script that helps detect spyware, malware and adware in the startup process

Autoruns 9.37
Displays All the entries from startup folder, Run, RunOnce, and other Registry keys,
Explorer shell extensions,toolbars, browser helper objects, Winlogon notifications,
auto-start services, Scheduled Tasks, Winsock, LSA Providers, Remove Drivers
and much more which helps to remove nasty spyware/adware and viruses.

Dial a Fix
Fix errors and problems with COM/ActiveX object errors and missing registry entries,
Automatic Updates, SSL, HTTPS, and Cryptography service (signing/verification)
issues, Reinstall internet explorer etc. comes with the policy scanner

CurrPorts 1.55
displays the list of all currently opened TCP and UDP ports on your computer

Unknown Devices 1.2 (3012)
helps you find what those unknown devices in Device Manager really are

PCI 32 Sniffer 1.1 (3012)
device information tool (similar to unknown devices)

NewSID 4.10
utility that changes the security ID (SID) for Windows NT, 2000 and XP

Smart Driver Backup 2.12
Easy backup of your Windows device drivers (also works from PE)

Double Driver 1.0
Driver Backup and Restore tool

DriverBackup! 1.0.3
Another handy tool to backup drivers

CPU-Z 1.49
It gathers information on some of the main devices of your system

CWShredder 2.19
Popular CoolWebSearch Trojan Remover tool

SmitFraudFix 2.387
This removes Some of the popular Desktop Hijack malware

Winsock 2 Fix for 9x
to fix corrupted Winsock2 information by poorly written Internet programs

XP TCP/IP Repair 1.0
Repair your Windows XP Winsock and TCP/IP registry errors

CCleaner 2.15.815
Crap Cleaner is a freeware system optimization and privacy tool

Helpful tool when trying to remove viruses, spyware, and malware

Content Advisor Password Remover 1.0
It Removes Content Advisor Password from Internet Explorer

Password Renew 1.1
Utility to (re)set windows passwords

WindowsGate 1.1
Enables/Disables Windows logon password validation

WinKeyFinder 1.73
Allows you to View and Change Windows XP/2003 Product Keys, backup and restore
activation related files, backup Microsoft Office 97, 2000 SP2, XP/2003 keys etc.

ProduKey 1.35
Recovers lost the product key of your Windows/Office

Wireless Key View 1.20
Recovers all wireless network keys (WEP/WPA) stored in your computer by WZC

Monitor Tester 1.0
Allows you to test CRT/LCD/TFT screens for dead pixels and diffective screens

Shell Extensions Manager (ShellExView) 1.35
An excellent tool to View and Manage all installed Context-menu/Shell extensions

Ultimate Windows Tweaker 1.0
A TweakUI Utility for tweaking and optimizing Windows Vista

TweakUI 2.10
This PowerToy gives you access to system settings that are not exposed in the Windows Xp

Xp-AntiSpy 3.97
it tweaks some Windows XP functions, and disables some unneeded Windows services quickly

PC Wizard 2008.1.871
Powerful system information/benchmark utility designed especially for detection of hardware.

SIW 2008-12-16
Gathers detailed information about your system properties and settings.

Spybot - Search & Destroy 1.6 (3012)
Application to scan for spyware, adware, hijackers and other malicious software.

SpywareBlaster 4.1 (3012)
Prevent the installation of spyware and other potentially unwanted software.

Ad-Aware SE Personal 1.06 (3012)
find and remove spyware, adware, dialers etc. (a must have tool)